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职称英语《卫生类B级》考试真题阅读理解

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第四部分 阅读理解

  Medicine Award Kicks off Nobel Prize Announcements

  【诺贝尔奖的公布从医学奖开始】

  Two scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday, kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.

  Australian-born U. S. citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a series of medical honors for their enzyme research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.

  Only seven women have won the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were handed out in 1901. The last female winner was U. S. researcher Linda Buck in 2004, who shared the prize with Richard Axel.

  Among the pair's possible rivals are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen, who opened up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors.

  As usual, the award committee is giving no hints about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm's Karolinska Institute.

  Alfred Nobel, the Swede who invented dynamite, established the prizes in his will in the categories of medicine, physics, chemistry,, literature and peace. The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden's central bank.

  Nobel left few instructions on how to select winners, but medicine winners are typically awarded for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.

  Hans Jornvall, secretary of the medicine prize committee, said the 10 million kronor ( US $1.3 million. prize encourages groundbreaking research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists.

  "Individual researchers probably don't look at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they're at work," Jornvall told The Associated Press. "They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life functions."

  In 2006, Blackburn, of the University of California, San Francisco, and Greider, of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, shared the Lasker prize for basic medical research with Jack Szostak of Harvard Medical School. Their work set the stage for research suggesting that cancer cells use telomerase to sustain their uncontrolled growth.

  文章中文翻译:

  诺贝尔奖的公布从医学奖开始

  两位因研究癌细胞的生长而赢得赞誉的科学家可能成为2008年诺贝尔医学奖的候选人,周一将为医学获奖者进行颁奖,从而开始诺贝尔奖为期六天的公布。

  由于对酶的研究,出生于澳大利亚的美国人伊丽莎白?布莱克本和另外一个美国人开罗?格雷德已经赢得了一系列医学方面的荣誉。专家认为他们最有可能获得这次的医学奖。

  自1901年首次颁发诺贝尔奖以来,只有七名女性赢得了医学奖,其中最后一名是美国研究员琳达?巴克,她和理查德?埃克索一起获得了2004年的医学奖。

  布莱克本和格雷德的竞争对手有来自法国的皮埃尔?尚本、来自美国的罗纳德?依文斯和艾尔伍德?杰森,他们开创了核激素受体这一蛋白质研究的新领域。

  与以前一样,在斯德哥尔摩卡罗林斯卡学院召开新闻发布会并公布决定之前,评奖委员会没有任何关于候选人是谁的暗示。

  阿尔弗雷德?诺贝尔是瑞典人,他发明了甘油炸药。他在遗嘱里确立了诺贝尔奖并将其分为医学奖,物理学奖,化学奖,文学奖及和平奖。严格来说,经济学奖不是诺贝尔而是瑞典中央银行在1968年创立的。

  诺贝尔没有留下关于如何评奖的指导,然而,医学奖的获得通常是由于具体的突破,而不是大量的研究。

  医学奖委员会秘书汉斯?乔恩瓦说,一千万瑞典克朗(相当于130万美元)的奖金可以鼓励开拓性研究,然而,他认为,赢得奖金并不是科学家的初衷。

  “从事研究工作时,研究者很可能并不把自己看成未来的诺贝尔奖获得者。”乔恩瓦这样对美联社记者说:“他们的动力来自他们的研究以及对生命运转方式的兴趣。”

  2006年,来自旧金山加利福尼亚大学的布莱克本,来自巴尔的摩约翰?霍普金斯大学的格雷德与来自哈佛医学院的杰克?绍斯塔克共同获得了拉斯克尔基础医学奖。他们的工作为研究癌细胞利用端粒酶维持不可控制的生长打下了基础。

How Deafness Makes It Easier to Hear【如何让耳聋的人更容易听见】

  Most people think of Beethoven's hearing loss as an obstacle to composing music. However,he produced his most powerful works in the last decade of his life when he was completely deaf.

  This is one of the most glorious cases of the triumph of will over adversity, but his biographer,Maynard Solomon,takes a different view. ___1___. In his deaf world Beethoven could experiment, free from the sounds of the outside world, free to create new forms and harmonies.

  Hearing loss does not seem to affect the musical ability of musicians who become deaf. They continue to"hear" music with as much,or greater,accuracy than if they were actually hearing it being played.

  ___2___. He described a fascinating phenomenon that happened within three months:"my former musical experiences began to play back to me.I couldn't differentiate between what I heard and real hearing. After many years,it is still rewarding to listen to these playbacks,to ‘ hear' music which is new to me and to find many quiet accompaniments for all of my moods. "

  How is it that the world we see,touch,hear,and smell is both "out there" and at the same time within us? There is no better example of this connection between external stimulus and internal perception than the cochlear implant. ___3___.However,it might be possible to use the brain's remarkable power to make sense of the electrical signals the implant produces.

  When Michael Edgar first"switched on" his cochlear implant,the sounds he heard were not at all clear. Gradually,with much hard work,he began to identify everyday sounds. For example,"The insistent ringing of the telephone became clear almost at once.”

  The primary purpose of the implant is to allow communication with others. When people spoke to Eagar,he heard their voices "coming through like a long-distance telephone call on a poor connection.”But when it came to his beloved music,the implant was of no help.___4___.He said,"I play the piano as I used to and hear it in my head at the same time. The movement of my fingers and the feel of the keys give added'clarity' to hearing in my head.”

  Cochlear implants allow the deaf to hear again in a way that is not perfect,but which can change their lives.___5___.Even the most amazing cochlear implants would have been useless to Beethoven as he composed his Ninth Symphony at the end of his life.

  文章中文翻译:

  如何让耳聋的人更容易听见

  大多数人把贝多芬的听力受损看作是他在作曲过程中的障碍。然而,他的最有力量的作品正是在他人生的最后十年里创作出来的,那时他完全耳聋。

  这是最值得称道的用意志战胜不幸的案例之一,但是他的传记作家梅纳德?所罗门却持不同的观点。梅纳德认为,贝多芬的耳聋“促进了他作为作曲家的成就,在他完全耳聋的世界里,他能够摆脱外在世界声音的干扰,自向地创作新的表现形式与和声。”

  听力受损似乎不会影响失聪的音乐家的音乐才能。他们能继续“听见”音乐,与他们能真正听见音乐相比,他们“听”得同样甚至更准确。

  2003年去世的迈克尔?伊加,在他2l岁时失聪。他曾经描绘过一幅发生在三个月内的迷人的事情:“我之前的音乐经历开始在脑中同放,我无法区别真正听到的和曾经听过的东西。许多年以后,听到这些同放,听见’对我来说是新鲜的音乐,为我所有的情绪找到伴唱仍然是值得的。”

  我们所看见的、触摸到的、听见的和闻到的世界是如何既“在外面”同时又在我们的内心?把外在刺激和在内在感知相结合的最好的例子就是耳蜗植入。没有任何人工的装置能代替听觉能力。但是,利用大脑非凡的能力来理解植入物产生的电信号还是有可能的。

  当迈克尔?伊加最先“开启”他的人工耳蜗时,他听到的声音一点儿都不清楚。在艰苦的努力下,他渐渐地开始辨认…日常的声音,比如他说道“电话的持续响声几乎是立刻就变得清晰了”。

  耳蜗植入最主要的口的就是能够与人交流。当人们与伊加交谈时,他能听到他们的嗓音“像是从连接不好的长途电话中传来的”。但是当提到他钟爱的音乐时,耳蜗植入就毫无用处。每当伊加想要欣赏音乐时,他就开始弹钢琴。他说“我像往常那样弹奏钢琴,同时在头脑中听见它。我手指的移动以及对音调的感觉使得头脑中的声音更加‘清晰’。”

  耳蜗植入让失聪的人以一种不完美的方式再次听见声音,但是它改变了他们的生活。尽管如此,正如迈克尔?伊加发现的那样,当涉及音乐和声时,听力就无关紧要了。甚至是最令人惊奇的耳蜗植入对贝多芬来说也毫无用处,因为他在他生命的最后阶段创作了他的第九交响曲。

第三篇Medicine Award Kicksoff Nobel Prize Announcements

Two scientists who have won praise for research into the growth ofcancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008winners are presented on Monday, kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.
Australian-born U. S. citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American CarolGreider have already won a series of medical honors for their enzyme researchand experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.
Only seven women have won the medicine prize since the first NobelPrizes were handed out in 1901.The last female winner was U. S. researcherLinda Buck in 2004, who shared the prize with Richard Axel.
Among the pair’s possible rivals are Frenchman Pierre Chambon andAmericans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen, who opened up the field of studyingproteins called nuclear hormone receptors.
As usual, the award committee is giving no hints about who is in therunning before presenting its decision in a news conference at Stockholm’sKarolinska Institute.
Alfred Nobel, the Swede who invented dynamite, established theprizes in his will in the categories of medicine, physics, chemistry,literature and peace. The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968creation of Sweden’s central bank.
Nobel left few instructions on how to select winners, but medicinewinners are typically awarded for a specific breakthrough rather than a body ofresearch.
Hans Jomvall, secretary of the medicine prize committee, said the 10million kronor (US $1.3 million) prize encourages groundbreaking research buthe did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists.
“Individual researchers probably don’t look at themselves aspotential Nobel Prize winners when they’re at work”, Jornvall told TheAssociated Press. “They get their kicks from their research and theirinterest in how life functions.”
In 2006, Blackburn, of the University of California, San Francisco,and Greider, of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, shared the Lasker prizefor basic medical research with Jack Szostak of Harvard Medical School. Theirwork set the stage for research suggesting that cancer cells use telomerase tosustain their uncontrolled growth.

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